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Psychological skills assessment and referee rugby sevens performance

Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin, Hasnol Noordin, Pathmanathan K. Suppiah, Mohamad Razali Abdullah, Mohd Sofian Omar Fauzee, Nagoor Meera Abdullah

Volume : vol 5, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-12-01

Keywords : Sports, Psychology, Rugby Referee

Abstract : This study aims to examine the psychological skills that are commonly used among referees rugby sevens and their relationship with referees’ performance. The Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports (Mahoney, Gabriel, & Perkins, 1987) was adapted and modified specifically for use by rugby sevens referees. It was administered to 132 rugby sevens referee (mean age 33.4 + 1.5 years; 132 males) of the Malaysian Rugby Union (MRU) which has been refereed in 10 rugby sevens tournament in Malaysia. The psychological skills variables employed in the questionnaire included confidence, anxiety management, mental preparation, motivation and concentration. The IRB Referee Sevens Performance Evaluation Form (r=0.94) was used to evaluate referee performance. These instruments measure the performance variable that contains the dimensions of control, communication, application of the law and the positioning. The descriptive statistics of the variables are Psychological skills (M= 120.14, SD= 6.97) and performance (M= 136.45, SD= 4.47) identified at a moderate level. Findings indicated no significant differences [F= (3, 72) =.636, p>0.05] in psychological skills across age levels but there are significant differences [F= (3, 128) =57.616, p<0.05] across experience levels. Highly experienced referees scored significantly higher in all psychological constructs compared to less experienced referees. Variables that showed strong and positive relationships with performance were anxiety management (r= .61), concentration (r= .57), confidence(r= .54) and motivation (r= .50). In conclusion, the psychological skills assessment can improve the efficacy of rugby referees and recommends that referee coaches increase the use of psychological skills in competitions and future training. Researchers should investigate the effectiveness of applied sport psychology interventions in enhancing referee performance in the future.

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Malaysian ethnic groups and the culture of football fans attendance during EPL clubs friendly matches in Malaysia

Mohamed @ Mohd Sadek Mustaffa, Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin, Borhan Yusof, Siti Aishah Wahab, Mohd Radzani Abdul Razak

Volume : vol 5, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-12-01

Keywords : Culture, Ethnic, Sport Attendance, Sport Fans, EPL clubs

Abstract : The involvement of Malaysian and the football fans in the English Premier League is real. Malaysia Airlines System (MAS) and Air Asia are the pure examples which involving in sponsoring EPL teams such as Manchester United, Liverpool and others. For the session year 2011-2012, they have moved another step further, where Malaysian not only sponsors the EPL team but they are the new owner of Queen Park Ranger and Cardiff City Club. Football is a team sport which is the most played and watched in the world, whether we actively participate as a player or simply attend as a fan or spectator. The popularity of football has increased especially in the 20th century. Recently, football is a lucrative industry through the authority of media broadcast income and ticket sales at stadiums. Millions of fans usually go to the football stadium to follow their favourite teams, while billions are watch football game on television. Malaysia's key issue is there are no consistencies in sport fans attendance which conducted in Malaysia. So, are better understandings of the culture of football attendance can increase fans attendance? And are the background of the fans can be part of influencing the attendance of fans to football friendly matches in Malaysia? The purpose of this study is to identify the culture of football fans attendance on English Premier League in Malaysia and to support for using the theory of planned behavior for selection of factors in conducting research regarding why people attend to watch EPL clubs in Malaysia. This study is a descriptive research, and the instrument that has been use is questionnaire which was adapted from Ketra L. Armstrong (2008). The sample size of this study is (n=815), and the participants of this research is from EPL sport fans club in Malaysia. The data was analyzed by using one-way ANOVA, and multiple regressions. Multiple regression shows that event attractiveness factor by getting experience of feeling while attending the match (?=.259) can increase the attendance of football fans. Simultaneously, event accessibility factor the researcher found that if the match held on appropriate day (?=.127) has influence to EPL fans attendance, although in this research the result shows that when the time and when the match will be held cannot influence them (?=.122) (?=.124). While event culture, when the organizer of the match provide a special giveaways and get the special merchandise from the match (?=.097) (?=.090) show significant on the attendance of sport fans. The results have the ability to provide much needed findings for event tournament, sponsors, and event organizer as they continue to develop methods to increase fans attendance.

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The effect of static, proprioceptive neuromuscular fascilitation and dynamic stretching on the activation of hamstring muscle among preadolescence

Mohamed @ Mohd Sadek Mustaffa, Mohamad Nizam Nazarudin, Mohd Azemir Mustafa, Borhan Yusof, Mohd Radzani Abdul Razak, Tajul Arifin Muhamad

Volume : vol 5, 2014

Publication Date : 2014-12-01

Keywords : Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, dynamic streching, hamstrings activation

Abstract : Introduction: Flexibility of the hamstring muscle can enhance performance in sports through prevention of injury, muscular and postural imbalance, maintenance of full range of joint movement and optimal musculoskeletal function (Schuback, Hooper & Salisbury, 2004). Sullivan, Murray & Sainsbury (2009) stated that decreased hamstring flexibility was suggested to be one of the predisposing factors for hamstring strains and hamstring stretches were routinely used as part of an exercise routine. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the more effective stretching method between static, PNF, and dynamic stretching on the activation of hamstring muscles among preadolescence and its relationship with power. Method: This research employed pre and post experimental design which comparing between and within subjects. Eighty subjects were assigned to four groups consist of static, PNF, dynamic and control group. Each participant exhibited tight hamstrings. Tight hamstrings were defined as a 30 degree knee extension deficit with the hip at 90 degree as described by Bandy et al (1997) & Gajdosik et al (1983). All of the participants was sedentary and not athletes. They were selected based on the low result from SEGAK (National Physical Fitness Standard).Each of the group followed six weeks intervention program except the control group. Outcome measures were measured using pre and post test. Statistical analyses used were mixed between-within subjects ANOVA and Pearson product moment correlation. Result & Discussion: Hamstring muscle activation following interventions with PNF was superior compared to other forms of stretching (p < 0.05). Sit and reach test, F (3, 76) = 25.57; p < 0.05, knee flexion test (dominant leg), F (3, 76) = 17.414; p < 0.05, knee flexion test (non dominant leg), F (3, 76) = 22.264; p < 0.05. Relationship between sit and reach test with vertical jump, r = -0.435, p < 0.05. Conclusion: PNF stretching was the effective treatment compared to static or dynamic stretching, however moderate and inverse relationship between flexibility and power.

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